20-years After Reformasi: Capitalist development and Anti-capitalist movement 20-years After Reformasi: Capitalist development and Anti-capitalist movement in Indonesia

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Following the capitalist crisis in 1997/98, Indonesia’s economic and political reforms led to increased incorporation into global capitalism. This paper examines three major issues related to such capitalist development after reformasi. First, the motor behind the development of capitalism is a remarkable exploitation of labor. Second, the accumulation of capital through land-based industries has seriously assaulted the mass of independent poor producers. Third, evidence indicates that the appropriation of nature has become the underlying feature of capitalist development. In response to such development there is a growing anti-capitalist movement in the country. Thus this paper also examines the anti-capitalist tendencies in the country. I will restrict my attention to two major tendencies among Indonesian activists today. The first is “reformist anti-capitalist” activists who advocate for a more regulated capitalism and demand a role for the state in regulating the market. The second is “revolutionary anti-capitalist” activists, whose concerns go beyond reforms to the capitalist system.


Martina Mimica


Arianto Sangadji
Doctoral Candidate, Graduate Programme in Geography, York University

Tania Li
Director, Centre for Southeast Asian Studies Professor, Department of Anthropology


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